Running head: DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH REGARDING CHD1 Determinants of Health Regarding CHD John Doe Walt Whitman University DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH REGARDING CHD2 Determinants of Health Regarding CHD There are many factors that work to together to influence the health of individuals and society at large. The environment that we live in, our heredity, our habits and behaviors, and our personal relationships help to impact our individual health and wellness. Some indirect factors that influence individual health are educational background and socio-economic status.
According to the World Health Organization,”The context of people’s lives determines their health, and so blaming individuals for having poor health or crediting them for good health is in appropriate. Individuals are unlikely to be able to directly control many of the determinants of health. ” They are defined as the things that contribute to health or work against it. Starfield (1973) suggested that health status is determined by a confluence of factors that can be classified into four major categories: (1) a person’s individual behaviors, (2) genetic makeup, (3) medical practice, and (4) the environment (Shi & Singh, 2007, p. 9). Coronary heart disease and stroke— the primary types of cardiovascular disease caused by smoking—are the first and third leading causes of death in the United States (Chisolm, 2007, p. 34). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (1979) estimated that 50 percent of premature death in the US population was directly related to individual lifestyle and behaviors, 20 percent was attributed to an individual’s inherited genetic profile, and only 10 percent could be ascribed to inadequate access to medical care.
The remaining 20 percent of premature mortality could be attributed to social and environmental factors (Shi & Singh, 2007, p. 49). DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH REGARDING CHD3 Heart Disease and Determinants of Health According to the Mayo Clinic,” While cardiovascular disease can refer to many different types of heart or blood vessel problems, the term is often used to mean damage caused to your heart or blood vessels by atherosclerosis, a buildup of fatty plaques in your arteries (or hardening of the arteries).
Atherosclerosis is the most common form of cardiovascular heart disease and it’s often caused by an unhealthy diet, lack of exercise, being overweight, and smoking. All of these are major risk factors for developing atherosclerosis and, in turn, cardiovascular disease” (Mayo Clinic, 2011). In the text, Delivering Health Care in America, the determinants of health are listed as environment, lifestyle, heredity, and medical care. Environmental factors encompass the physical, socioeconomic, sociopolitical, and sociocultural dimensions (Shi & Singh, 2007, p. 1). The relationship of socioeconomic status (SES) to health and well-being may be explained by the general likelihood that people who have better education also have higher incomes. They live in better homes and locations where they are less exposed to environmental risks, have better access to health care, and are more likely to avoid risk behaviors, such as smoking and drug abuse (Shi & Singh, 2007, 51). With relation to lifestyle, studies have shown that diet and foods, for example, play a major role in most of the significant health problems of today.
Heart disease, diabetes, stroke, and cancer are but some of the diseases with direct links to dietary choices (Shi & Singh, 2007, p. 52). Heredity is a key determinant of health because genetic factors predispose individuals to certain diseases…a person can do little about the genetic makeup one has inherited. DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH REGARDING CHD4 However, lifestyles and behaviors that a person may currently engage in can have significant influences on future progeny (Shi & Singh, 2007, 53). Finally, although medical care is considered to have the least impact on health and well-being, the American public’s attitudes toward improving ealth are based on more medical research, development of new medical technology, and spending more on high-tech medical care (Shi & Singh, 2007, p. 53). The determinants of health—factors that influence individual and population health status—are well established (Shi & Singh, 2007, 49). Affects of Cardiovascular Heart Disease There are several parts of the body and bodily functions that are affected by CHD. The arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygen and nutrients from your heart to the rest of your body.
Healthy arteries are flexible and strong. Over time, however, too much pressure in your arteries can make the walls thick and stiff, which restricts blood from flowing to your organs and tissues (Mayo Clinic, 2011). Other complications of CHD are heart failure, heart attacks, strokes, and aneurysms to name a few. The obvious body part that is most affected is the heart; however, because the heart is such a crucial part of the human body, all of the other parts of the human body can and will be affected by CHD. Symptoms and Treatments of CHD
Although symptoms vary according to what type or to what degree the CHD has developed, they can include the following: chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, pain, numbness, and weakness or coldness in your legs or arms (Mayo Clinic, 2011). The tests and diagnosis for CHD is determined by the following medical procedures: blood tests, Chest x-rays, Electrocardiogram (ECG), Echocardiogram, Cardiac catheterization, heart biopsy, DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH REGARDING CHD5 Cardiac computerized tomography (CT scan), or a Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (Mayo Clinic, 2011).
There are various treatments for CHD. The treatments can range from changes in eating habits to medication to surgery or a combination of all of the above. National Scope of CHD From a national perspective, The U. S. Surgeon General estimates that 13. 5 million people have coronary heart disease and 1. 5 million people suffer from a heart attack in a given year (Chisolm, 2007, p. 32). Americans are not physically fit which leads to the prevalence of obesity. Obese individuals are at increased risk for heart disease, high blood pressure, iabetes, arthritis-related disabilities, and some cancers (Chisolm, 2007, p. 32). Another culprit of CHD is smoking. Coronary heart disease and stroke—the primary types of cardiovascular disease caused by smoking—are the first and third leading causes of death in the United States. Smoking causes coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in the United States (Chisolm, 2007 p. 34). From a societal level, the above information implies that millions of Americans are suffering from CHD and other illnesses that could be avoided by simply involving themselves in consistent physical activities.
If we allow ourselves to be active, we will empower ourselves to be well. Potential Implications for Health Care Administrators There are several potential implications for health care administrators to consider regarding CHD. There are two particular areas that should be addressed on a consistent basis regarding patient care. They are the need for high quality care and the need for access to care. DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH REGARDING CHD6 The greatest challenge to achieving further improvements in cardiac care in The U. S. nd England will be to develop systems of care that promote quality, rather than relying on well-intentioned but fragmented efforts of individual providers to improve care (Ayanian & Quinn, 2001). One of the challenges in achieving quality care is that everyone has a different opinion of what it means to them. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) has defined quality as “the degree to which health services for individuals and populations increase the likelihood of desired health outcomes and are consistent with current professional knowledge” (Shi & Singh, 2007, p. 514).
The IOM principal of quality of care is viable, but some medical professionals feel that it doesn’t include important aspects such as cost of care and access to care. Even though the United States spends more of its national income on health care than other nations, Americans are not the healthiest people in the world (Shi & Singh, 2007, p. 515). Perhaps a key reason why the United States, despite its tremendous advances in medical technology, trails behind other industrialized nations in broad population measures health is lack of access to basic health care for many Americans (Shi & Singh, 2007,p. 515).
Health care administrators should work hard to find solutions for CHD patients, as well as the patient population at large, by coordinating health care services that provide high quality health care and make certain that access to that health care is available to all patients. Reference: Ayanian, J. Z. & Quinn, T. J. (2001). Quality of health care for coronary heart disease in two countries. Health Affairs, 20, 355-367. http://content. healthaffairs. org/content/20/3/55. full Chisolm, S. (2007). The health professions: Trends and opportunities in U. S. health care. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett. Mayo Clinic http://www. ayoclinic. com/health/heart-disease/DSO1120/DSECTION=causes http://www. mayoclinic. com/health/heart-disease/DSO1120/DSECTION=tests-and-diagnosis http://www. mayoclinic. com/health/heart-disease/DSO1120/DSECTION=symptoms http://www. mayoclinic. com/health/heart-disease/DSO1120/DSECTION=treatments-and-drugs Perrin, R. (2010). Pocket guide to APA style (Laureate Education, Inc. , custom ed. ). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning. Shi, L. , & Singh, D. A. , (2008). Delivering health care in America: A systems approach (4th ed. ). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett. World Health Organization (WHO) http://www. who. int/ent/